Effects of PTH glandular and external dosing patterns on bone cell activity using a two-state receptor model—Implications for bone disease progression and treatment

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Martonová, Denisa
Lavaill, Maxence
Forwood, Mark R.
Robling, Alexander
Cooper, David M. L.
Leyendecker, Sigrid
Pivonka, Peter

Temporal aspects of ligand specificity have been shown to play a significant role in the case of pulsatile hormone secretion, as exemplified by parathyroid hormone (PTH) binding to its receptor (PTH1R), a G-protein-coupled receptor expressed on surfaces of osteoblasts and osteocytes. The latter binding reaction regulates intracellular signalling and subsequently modulates skeletal homeostasis via bone remodelling. PTH glandular secretion patterns dictate bone cellular activity. In healthy humans, 70% of PTH is secreted in a tonic fashion, whereas 30% is secreted in low-amplitude and high-frequency bursts occurring every 10–20 min, superimposed on the tonic secretion. Changes in the PTH secretion patterns have been associated with various bone diseases. In this paper, we analyse PTH glandular secretion patterns for healthy and pathological states and their link to bone cellular responsiveness (αR). We utilise a two-state receptor ligand binding model of PTH to PTH1R together with a cellular activity function which is able to distinguish various aspects of the stimulation signal including peak dose, time of ligand exposure, and exposure period. Formulating and solving several constrained optimisation problems, we investigate the potential of pharmacological manipulation of the diseased glandular secretion and via clinical approved external PTH injections to restore healthy bone cellular responsiveness. Based on the mean experimentally reported data, our simulation results indicate cellular responsiveness in healthy subjects is sensitive to the tonic baseline stimulus and it is 28% of the computed maximum responsiveness. Simulation results for pathological cases of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, initial and steady state hypocalcemia clamp tests indicate αR values significantly larger than the healthy baseline (1.7, 2.2, 4.9 and 1.9-times, respectively). Manipulation of the pulsatile glandular secretion pattern, while keeping the mean PTH concentration constant, allowed restoration of healthy baseline values from these catabolic bone diseases. Conversely, PTH glandular diseases that led to maximum bone cellular responsiveness below the healthy baseline value can’t be restored to baseline via glandular manipulation. However, external PTH injections allowed restoration of these latter cases.

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