Smartphone-Based Colorimetric Analysis of Urine Test Strips for At-Home Prenatal Care

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2023-07-04
First published
2022-05-30
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Flaucher, Madeleine
Nissen, Michael
Jaeger, Katharina M.
Titzmann, Adriana
Pontones, Constanza
Huebner, Hanna
Fasching, Peter A.
Beckmann, Matthias W.
Gradl, Stefan
Eskofier, Bjoern M.
Editor
Abstract

Objective: Clinical urine tests are a key component of prenatal care. As of now, urine test strips are evaluated through a time consuming, often error-prone and operator-dependent visual color comparison of test strips and reference cards by medical staff. Methods and procedures: This work presents an automated pipeline for urinalysis with urine test strips using smartphone camera images in home environments, combining several image processing and color combination techniques. Our approach is applicable to off-the-shelf test strips in home conditions with no additional hardware required. For development and evaluation of our pipeline we collected image data from two sources: i) A user study (26 participants, 150 images) and ii) a lab study (135 images). Results: We trained a region-based convolutional neural network that is able to detect the urine test strip location and orientation in images with a wide variety of light conditions, backgrounds and perspectives with an accuracy of 85.5%. The reference card can be robustly detected through a feature matching approach in 98.6% of the images. Color comparison by Hue channel (0.81 F1-Score), Matching factor (0.80 F1-Score) and Euclidean distance (0.70 F1-Score) were evaluated to determine the urinalysis results. Conclusion: We show that an automated smartphone-based colorimetric analysis of urine test strips in a home environment is feasible. It facilitates examinations and provides the possibility to shift care into an at-home environment. Clinical impact: The findings demonstrate that routine urine examinations can be transferred into the home environment using a smartphone. Simultaneously, human error is avoided, accuracy is increased and medical staff is relieved.

Journal Title
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Volume
10
Citation
IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine 10 (2022): 2800109. <https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9785816>
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