Milk Transmission of HTLV-1 and the Need for Innovative Prevention Strategies

dc.contributor.authorMillen, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorThoma-Kress, Andrea K.
dc.date.accessioned2022-04-04
dc.date.available2023-10-09T18:04:02Z
dc.date.created2022
dc.date.issued2022-04-04
dc.description.abstractBreastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organization for at least 6 months up to 2 years of age, and breast milk protects against several diseases and infections. Intriguingly, few viruses are transmitted via breastfeeding including Human T-cell leukemia virus Type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 is a highly oncogenic yet neglected retrovirus, which primarily infects CD4+ T-cells in vivo and causes incurable diseases like HTLV-1-associated inflammatory conditions or Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) after lifelong viral persistence. Worldwide, at least 5–10 million people are HTLV-1-infected and most of them are unaware of their infection posing the risk of silent transmissions. HTLV-1 is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk, which constitutes the major route of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Risk of transmission increases with the duration of breastfeeding, however, abstinence from breastfeeding as it is recommended in some endemic countries is not an option in resource-limited settings or underrepresented areas and populations. Despite significant progress in understanding details of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission, it is still not fully understood, which cells in which organs get infected via the oral route, how these cells get infected, how breast milk affects this route of infection and how to inhibit oral transmission despite breastfeeding, which is an urgent need especially in underrepresented areas of the world. Here, we review these questions and provide an outlook how future research could help to uncover prevention strategies that might ultimately allow infants to benefit from breastfeeding while reducing the risk of HTLV-1 transmission.en
dc.identifier.citationFrontiers in Medicine 9 (2022): 867147. <https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2022.867147/full>
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.867147
dc.identifier.issn2296-858X
dc.identifier.opus-id18953
dc.identifier.urihttps://open.fau.de/handle/openfau/18953
dc.identifier.urnurn:nbn:de:bvb:29-opus4-189532
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.de
dc.subjectHTLV-1
dc.subjectvirus transmission
dc.subjectbreastfeeding
dc.subjectbreast milk
dc.subjecttonsils
dc.subjectsmall intestine
dc.subjectoral route
dc.subject.ddcDDC Classification::6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften :: 61 Medizin und Gesundheit :: 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
dc.titleMilk Transmission of HTLV-1 and the Need for Innovative Prevention Strategiesen
dc.typearticle
dcterms.publisherFriedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU)
local.date.prevpublished2022-03-11
local.document.articlenumber867147
local.journal.titleFrontiers in Medicine
local.journal.volume9
local.sendToDnbfree*
local.subject.fakultaetMedizinische Fakultät
local.subject.importimport
local.subject.sammlungUniversität Erlangen-Nürnberg / Eingespielte Open Access Artikel / Eingespielte Open Access Artikel 2022
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