Predictors of incident malnutrition—a nutritionDay analysis in 11,923 nursing home residents

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2023-03-30
First published
2022-03-01
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Torbahn, Gabriel
Sulz, Isabella
Großhauser, Franz
Hiesmayr, Michael J.
Kiesswetter, Eva
Schindler, Karin
Sieber, Cornel C.
Visser, Marjolein
Weber, Jasmin
Volkert, Dorothee
Editor
Publisher
Nature Publishing Group UK
Abstract

Abstract

      Background/Objectives
      Malnutrition (MN) in nursing home (NH) residents is associated with poor outcome. In order to identify those with a high risk of incident MN, the knowledge of predictors is crucial. Therefore, we investigated predictors of incident MN in older NH-residents.
    
    
      Subjects/Methods
      NH-residents participating in the nutritionDay-project (nD) between 2007 and 2018, aged ≥65 years, with complete data on nutritional status at nD and after 6 months and without MN at nD. The association of 17 variables (general characteristics (n = 3), function (n = 4), nutrition (n = 1), diseases (n = 5) and medication (n = 4)) with incident MN (weight loss ≥ 10% between nD and follow-up (FU) or BMI (kg/m2) < 20 at FU) was analyzed in univariate generalized estimated equation (GEE) models. Significant (p < 0.1) variables were selected for multivariate GEE-analyses. Effect estimates are presented as odds ratios and their respective 99.5%-confidence intervals.
    
    
      Results
      Of 11,923 non-malnourished residents, 10.5% developed MN at FU. No intake at lunch (OR 2.79 [1.56–4.98]), a quarter (2.15 [1.56–2.97]) or half of the meal eaten (1.72 [1.40–2.11]) (vs. three-quarter to complete intake), the lowest BMI-quartile (20.0–23.0) (1.86 [1.44–2.40]) (vs. highest (≥29.1)), being between the ages of 85 and 94 years (1.46 [1.05; 2.03]) (vs. the youngest age-group 65–74 years)), severe cognitive impairment (1.38 [1.04; 1.84]) (vs. none) and being immobile (1.28 [1.00–1.62]) (vs. mobile) predicted incident MN in the final model.
    
    
      Conclusion
      10.5% of non-malnourished NH-residents develop MN within 6 months. Attention should be paid to high-risk groups, namely residents with poor meal intake, low BMI, severe cognitive impairment, immobility, and older age.
Journal Title
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume
76
Issue
3
Citation
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 76.3 (2022): 382-388. <https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-021-00964-9>
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