Theory of chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI in the context of different magnetic fields

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2022-11-23
First published
2022-10-04
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Zaiss, Moritz
Jin, Tao
Kim, Seong‐Gi
Gochberg, Daniel F.
Editor
Abstract

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile MRI method that provides contrast based on the level of molecular and metabolic activity. This contrast arises from indirect measurement of protons in low concentration molecules that are exchanging with the abundant water proton pool. The indirect measurement is based on magnetization transfer of radio frequency (rf)‐prepared magnetization from the small pool to the water pool. The signal can be modeled by the Bloch–McConnell equations combining standard magnetization dynamics and chemical exchange processes. In this article, we review analytical solutions of the Bloch–McConnell equations and especially the derived CEST signal equations and their implications. The analytical solutions give direct insight into the dependency of measurable CEST effects on underlying parameters such as the exchange rate and concentration of the solute pools, but also on the system parameters such as the rf irradiation field B1, as well as the static magnetic field B0. These theoretical field‐strength dependencies and their influence on sequence design are highlighted herein. In vivo results of different groups making use of these field‐strength benefits/dependencies are reviewed and discussed.

Journal Title
NMR in Biomedicine
Volume
35
Issue
11
Citation
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