Dopant mapping in highly p-doped silicon by micro-Raman spectroscopy at various injection levels
Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used to investigate the acceptor distribution in highly p-doped silicon. As an example, the dopant distribution in crystalline thin-film layers, as developed for solar cells, was mapped. The method is based on the analysis of the Fano-type Raman peak shape which is caused by free charge carriers. For calibration of the Raman acceptor measurements (excitation at a wavelength of 532 nm), we used mono-crystalline reference samples whose acceptor concentration was determined by electrochemical capacitance voltage. We find a significant influence of light induced free charge carriers on the peak shape which results from typical Raman excitation. Thus, the selection of a suitable intensity is important to avoid a too low signal-to-noise ratio on the one hand and systematic errors due to light induced carriers on the other hand. Different evaluation methods, i.e., peak asymmetry versus peak width analysis, are compared in respect to interference caused by random noise of the spectra or else by internal stress in the sample. While the width analysis method is more robust to a low signal-to-noise ratio, the symmetry analysis is more reliable in case of high intrinsic stress.