Contribution of S. xylosus and L. sakei ssp. carnosus Fermentation to the Aroma of Lupin Protein Isolates
Aroma-active compounds of lupin protein isolate and lupin protein isolate fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus were investigated. The changes in aroma-active compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry for identification, and by stable isotope dilution assays for quantification. A total of 30 aroma-active compounds for non-fermented and fermented samples were identified. The aroma profile of LPI fermented with Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus was characterized as roasty and popcorn-like. Staphylococcus xylosus generated cheesy impressions, being in line with the fact that the main aroma compounds acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 2/3-methylbutanoic acid could be identified. Quantification of butanoic acid further confirmed these findings with the highest concentration of 140 mg/kg for LPI fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus. Our study provides insights into how fermentation utilizing different fermentative microbial strains, namely Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus sakei ssp. carnosus alters the aroma profile of lupin protein isolates. This demonstrates the potential of shaping fermented protein-based foods via targeted microbiological refinement.