Impact of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Vascularization of Osteogenic Scaffolds

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2022-04-11
First published
2022-03-08
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Steiner, Dominik
Reinhardt, Lea
Fischer, Laura
Popp, Vanessa
Körner, Carolin
Geppert, Carol I.
Bäuerle, Tobias
Horch, Raymund E.
Arkudas, Andreas
Editor
Publisher
MDPI
Abstract

The microvascular endothelial network plays an important role in osteogenesis, bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a high angiogenic and vasculogenic potential. The endothelialization of scaffolds with endothelial progenitor cells supports vascularization and tissue formation. In addition, EPCs enhance the osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This study aimed to investigate the impact of EPCs on vascularization and bone formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP)–fibrin scaffold. Three groups were designed: a scaffold-only group (A), a scaffold and EPC group (B), and a scaffold and EPC/MSC group (C). The HA/ß–TCP–fibrin scaffolds were placed in a porous titanium chamber permitting extrinsic vascularization from the surrounding tissue. Additionally, intrinsic vascularization was achieved by means of an arteriovenous loop (AV loop). After 12 weeks, the specimens were explanted and investigated by histology and CT. We were able to prove a strong scaffold vascularization in all groups. No differences regarding the vessel number and density were detected between the groups. Moreover, we were able to prove bone formation in the coimplantation group. Taken together, the AV loop is a powerful tool for vascularization which is independent from scaffold cellularization with endothelial progenitor cells’ prior implantation.

Journal Title
Cells
Volume
11
Issue
6
Citation
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