Cytoplasmic p21 Mediates 5-Fluorouracil Resistance by Inhibiting Pro-Apoptotic Chk2

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2019-08-14
First published
2018-10-09
Issue Year
2018
Authors
Maiuthed, Arnatchai
Ninsontia, Chuanpit
Erlenbach-Wuensch, Katharina
Ndreshkjana, Benardina
Muenzner, Julienne
Caliskan, Aylin
Ahmed P., Husayn
Chaotham, Chatchai
Hartmann, Arndt
Vial Roehe, Adriana
Editor
Publisher
MDPI
Abstract

The oncogenic cytoplasmic p21 contributes to cancer aggressiveness and chemotherapeutic failure. However, the molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show for the first time that cytoplasmic p21 mediates 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) resistance by shuttling p-Chk2 out of the nucleus to protect the tumor cells from its pro-apoptotic functions. We observed that cytoplasmic p21 levels were up-regulated in 5FU-resistant colorectal cancer cells in vitro and the in vivo Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Kinase array analysis revealed that p-Chk2 is a key target of cytoplasmic p21. Importantly, cytoplasmic form of p21 mediated by p21T145D transfection diminished p-Chk2-mediated activation of E2F1 and apoptosis induction. Co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay showed that p21 forms a complex with p-Chk2 under 5FU exposure. Using in silico computer modeling, we suggest that the p21/p-Chk2 interaction hindered the nuclear localization signal of p-Chk2, and therefore, the complex is exported out of the nucleus. These findings unravel a novel mechanism regarding an oncogenic role of p21 in regulation of resistance to 5FU-based chemotherapy. We suggest a possible value of cytoplasmic p21 as a prognosis marker and a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer patients.

Journal Title
Cancers
Volume
10
Issue
10
Citation
Cancers 10.10 (2018). <https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/10/10/373>
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