Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease in Clinical Practice: The Role of CSF Biomarkers during the Evolution of Diagnostic Criteria

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2022-10-25
First published
2022-08-02
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Dulewicz, Maciej
Kulczyńska-Przybik, Agnieszka
Mroczko, Piotr
Kornhuber, Johannes
Lewczuk, Piotr
Mroczko, Barbara
Editor
Publisher
MDPI
Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive condition and the most common cause of dementia worldwide. The neuropathological changes characteristic of the disorder can be successfully detected before the development of full-blown AD. Early diagnosis of the disease constitutes a formidable challenge for clinicians. CSF biomarkers are the in vivo evidence of neuropathological changes developing in the brain of dementia patients. Therefore, measurement of their concentrations allows for improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis. Moreover, AD biomarkers may provide an indication of disease stage. Importantly, the CSF biomarkers of AD play a pivotal role in the new diagnostic criteria for the disease, and in the recent biological definition of AD by the National Institute on Aging, NIH and Alzheimer’s Association. Due to the necessity of collecting CSF by lumbar puncture, the procedure seems to be an important issue not only from a medical, but also a legal, viewpoint. Furthermore, recent technological advances may contribute to the automation of AD biomarkers measurement and may result in the establishment of unified cut-off values and reference limits. Moreover, a group of international experts in the field of AD biomarkers have developed a consensus and guidelines on the interpretation of CSF biomarkers in the context of AD diagnosis. Thus, technological advancement and expert recommendations may contribute to a more widespread use of these diagnostic tests in clinical practice to support a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia due to AD. This review article presents up-to-date data regarding the usefulness of CSF biomarkers in routine clinical practice and in biomarkers research.

Journal Title
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume
23
Issue
15
Citation
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23.15 (2022): 8598. <https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/15/8598>
Zugehörige ORCIDs