Stability Analysis of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations for Grid Applications
Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHiL) simulation is an emerging testing methodology of real hardware equipment within an emulated virtual environment. The closed loop interfacing between the Hardware under Test (HuT) and the Real Time Simulation (RTS) enables a realistic simulation but can also result in an unstable system. In addition to fundamentals in PHiL simulation and interfacing, this paper therefore provides a consistent and comprehensive study of PHiL stability. An analytic analysis is compared with a simulative approach and is supplemented by practical validations of the stability limits in PHiL simulation. Special focus is given on the differences between a switching and a linear amplifier as power interface (PI). Stability limits and the respective factors of influence (e.g., Feedback Current Filtering) are elaborated with a minimal example circuit with voltage-type Ideal Transformer Model (ITM) PHiL interface algorithm (IA). Finally, the findings are transferred to a real low-voltage grid PHiL application with residential load and photovoltaic system.