Using Copper-Doped Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Nanospheres to Impart Anti-Bacterial Properties to Dental Composites
Experimental dental resin composites containing copper-doped mesoporous bioactive glass nanospheres (Cu-MBGN) were developed to impart anti-bacterial properties. Increasing amounts of Cu-MBGN (0, 1, 5 and 10 wt%) were added to the BisGMA/TEGDMA resin matrix containing micro- and nano-fillers of inert glass, keeping the resin/filler ratio constant. Surface micromorphology and elemental analysis were performed to evaluate the homogeneous distribution of filler particles. The study investigated the effects of Cu-MBGN on the degree of conversion, polymerization shrinkage, porosity, ion release and anti-bacterial activity on S. mutans and A. naeslundii. Experimental materials containing Cu-MBGN showed a dose-dependent Cu release with an initial burst and a further increase after 28 days. The composite containing 10% Cu-MBGN had the best anti-bacterial effect on S. mutans, as evidenced by the lowest adherence of free-floating bacteria and biofilm formation. In contrast, the 45S5-containing materials had the highest S. mutans adherence. Ca release was highest in the bioactive control containing 15% 45S5, which correlated with the highest number of open porosities on the surface. Polymerization shrinkage was similar for all tested materials, ranging from 3.8 to 4.2%, while the degree of conversion was lower for Cu-MBGN materials. Cu-MBGN composites showed better anti-bacterial properties than composites with 45S5 BG.