Photo by ©FAU/Erich Malter


Online publication system of Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

The online publication system OPEN FAU is the central publication platform for Open Access publishing for all members of Friedrich-Alexander-Universität. Qualified works from research and teaching may be published here free of charge, either as a primary or secondary publication. The full texts are permanently available worldwide and are findable and citable via catalogues and search engines.

To search for documents in OPEN FAU, please select "Search" (via the magnifying glass at the top right); this will provide you with various search options. If you want to publish a document, go to "Login" and "My Publications". Then drag you document into the field provided and enter the metadata. In just a few steps, you can submit your document. Please note our guidelines, the publication contract and FAQs.


Recent Submissions

Open Access
Metabolic and molecular imaging in inflammatory arthritis
(EULAR, 2024-02-09) Noversa de Sousa, Rita; TASCILAR, Koray; Corte, Giulia; Atzinger, Armin; Minopoulou, Ioanna; Ohrndorf, Sarah; Waldner, Maximilian; Schmidkonz, Christian; Kuwert, Torsten; Knieling, Ferdinand; Kleyer, Arnd; Ramming, Andreas; Schett, Georg; Simon, David; Fagni, Filippo

It is known that metabolic shifts and tissue remodelling precede the development of visible inflammation and structural organ damage in inflammatory rheumatic diseases such as the inflammatory arthritides. As such, visualising and measuring metabolic tissue activity could be useful to identify biomarkers of disease activity already in a very early phase. Recent advances in imaging have led to the development of so-called ‘metabolic imaging’ tools that can detect these changes in metabolism in an increasingly accurate manner and non-invasively.

Nuclear imaging techniques such as 18F-D-glucose and fibroblast activation protein inhibitor-labelled positron emission tomography are increasingly used and have yielded impressing results in the visualisation (including whole-body staging) of inflammatory changes in both early and established arthritis. Furthermore, optical imaging-based bedside techniques such as multispectral optoacoustic tomography and fluorescence optical imaging are advancing our understanding of arthritis by identifying intra-articular metabolic changes that correlate with the onset of inflammation with high precision and without the need of ionising radiation.

Metabolic imaging holds great potential for improving the management of patients with inflammatory arthritis by contributing to early disease interception and improving diagnostic accuracy, thereby paving the way for a more personalised approach to therapy strategies including preventive strategies. In this narrative review, we discuss state-of-the-art metabolic imaging methods used in the assessment of arthritis and inflammation, and we advocate for more extensive research endeavours to elucidate their full field of application in rheumatology.

Open Access
Long-term safety and effectiveness of canakinumab in patients with monogenic autoinflammatory diseases: results from the interim analysis of the RELIANCE registry
(EULAR, 2024-02-15) Kuemmerle-Deschner, Jasmin B; Kallinich, Tilmann; Henes, Joerg; Kortus-Götze, Birgit; Oommen, Prasad T; Rech, Juergen; Krickau, Tobias; Weller-Heinemann, Frank; Horneff, Gerd; Janda, Aleš; Foeldvari, Ivan; Schuetz, Catharina; Dressler, Frank; Borte, Michael; Hufnagel, Markus; Meier, Florian; Fiene, Michael; Andreica, Ioana; Weber-Arden, Julia; Blank, Norbert

Interim analysis of the RELIANCE registry, an on-going, non-interventional, open-label, multicentre, prospective study evaluating the long-term safety, dosing regimens and effectiveness of canakinumab in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS), familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumour-necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) or mevalonate-kinase deficiency (MKD)/hyperimmunoglobulin-D syndrome (HIDS).


From September 2017 for patients with CAPS, and June 2018 for patients with FMF, TRAPS or MKD/HIDS, the registry enrolled paediatric (aged ≥2 years) and adult patients (aged ≥18 years) receiving canakinumab as part of their routine medical care. Safety, canakinumab dose, disease activity and quality of life outcome measures were evaluated at baseline and every 6 months until end of study visit.


At the analysis cut-off date (December 2020), 168 patients (91 CAPS, 54 FMF, 16 TRAPS and 7 MKD/HIDS) were enrolled. 85 (50.9%) patients were female and 72 (43.1%) were children (<18 years). The median patient age was 20.0 years (range 2.0–79.0 years). In the CAPS cohort, serious infections and serious adverse drug-reactions were more common in patients receiving higher than the recommended starting dose (SD) of canakinumab. A trend to receive >SD of canakinumab was observed in the pooled population. The majority of patients were reported as having either absent or mild/moderate disease activity (physician’s global assessment) from baseline to Month 30, with a stable proportion of patients (~70%) in remission under canakinumab treatment. Patient-reported disease activity (Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Autoinflammatory Disease Activity Index), fatigue (VAS); markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) remained well-controlled throughout.


Data from this analysis confirm the long-term safety and effectiveness of canakinumab for the treatment of CAPS, FMF, TRAPS and MKD/HIDS.

Open Access
Disruption of a high‐pressure unit during exhumation: Example of the Cycladic Blueschist unit (Thera, Ios and Naxos islands, Greece)
(2023-12-21) Peillod, Alexandre; Patten, Clifford G. C.; Drüppel, Kirsten; Beranoaguirre, Aratz; Zeh, Armin; Gudelius, Dominik; Hector, Simon; Majka, Jarosław; Kleine-Marshall, Barbara I.; Karlson, Andreas; Gerdes, Axel; Kolb, Jochen

Reconstructing the original geometry of a high‐pressure tectonic unit is challenging but important to understand the mechanisms of mountain building. While a single nappe is subducted and exhumed, nappe‐internal thrusts may disrupt it into several subunits. The Middle‐CBU nappe of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (Hellenide subduction orogen, Greece) shows evidence of such disruption along a Trans‐Cycladic‐Thrust (TCT), however, the timing of this thrusting is unknown. Here, we report multi‐petrological and geochronological data from the Middle‐CBU nappe from the Thera and Ios islands (Greece). Using Zr‐in‐rutile thermometry coupled with quartz‐in‐garnet elastic barometry, average P–T and phase equilibrium thermodynamic modelling, we show that garnet growth in Ios occurred during prograde metamorphism at 6.7 ± 1.4 kbar to 13.0 ± 1.6 kbar and 326 ± 20°C to 506 ± 13°C (2σ uncertainty) followed by early exhumation to 10.1 ± 0.6 kbar and 484 ± 14°C and a greenschist facies overprint at 5.7 ± 1.2 kbar and 416 ± 14°C. For Thera, we constrain peak HP conditions of 7.6 ± 1.8 kbar and 331 ± 18°C, followed by exhumation and equilibration at ~2 kbar and ~275°C using average P–T and phase equilibrium thermodynamic modelling. For Ios, Uranium‐Pb garnet geochronology provides ages of 55.7 ± 5.0 Ma (2σ uncertainties) for prograde and 40.1 ± 1.4 Ma for peak HP metamorphism. Combining our new P–T–t data from Thera and Ios islands with existing data from Naxos island, we conclude that the studied nappe segments represent remnants of a former coherent nappe. The P–T–t data define an Eocene subduction rate of 2.1 ± 1.0 km/Ma, which is distinctly slower than the current subduction rate of 40–45 km/Ma. After subduction, the exhumation of the Middle‐CBU nappe occurred during the Oligocene at different rates for different localities. The Middle‐CBU nappe of Naxos was exhumed at a rate of ~6 km/Ma, contrasting with the exhumation rate of ~3 km/Ma calculated for Ios. This result suggests that the Middle‐CBU nappe of Naxos rocks was thrust on the Ios one during the Oligocene. Using P–T–t data and assuming realistic subduction angles during the Eocene and the Oligocene, we present a 2D structural reconstruction of the Middle‐CBU nappe of these islands. This reconstruction helps to understand the mechanisms of subduction of a continental margin and its disruption during exhumation.

Open Access
Reinforcing Tissue‐Engineered Cartilage: Nanofibrillated Cellulose Enhances Mechanical Properties of Alginate Dialdehyde–Gelatin Hydrogel
(2023-09-15) chayanun, slila; Soufivand, Anahita Ahmadi; Faber, Jessica; Budday, Silvia; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

Cartilage tissue engineering offers a promising option for treating osteochondral defects. Alginate dialdehyde–gelatin (ADA–GEL) hydrogel has been explored as promising material for soft tissue scaffolds; however, its low stiffness has posed a constraint to load bearing applications. Herein, this limitation is addressed by introducing nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) into the ADA–GEL matrix. The effect of NFC on the physicochemical properties of hydrogels is evaluated. Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate no chemical interaction between NFC and ADA–GEL, while scanning electron microscopy pictures reveal NFC fibers embedded in the hydrogel matrix, thus confirming the fiber‐reinforced composite hypothesis. NFC‐reinforced ADA–GEL (AG‐N) composite hydrogels exhibit increased stiffness, with a maximum compressive effective modulus of 19.6 ± 3.0 kPa at 25% w/w NFC content. ATDC5 cell viability and proliferation as well as chondrogenic differentiation are assessed using immunohistochemical staining for sulfated glycosaminoglycans and collagen type II. A possible application of AG‐N hydrogels as an osteochondral plug is also proposed, with polyetheretherketone as the subchondral bone anchor part. The mechanical properties of the resulting osteochondral device highlight its potential as a promising biomaterial for treatment of osteochondral defects. These findings provide valuable insights into the development of AG‐N hydrogels for load‐bearing tissue engineering applications.

Open Access
Correlation Between Structural Features and Magnetic Performance of Fe93.5Si6.5 (wt.%) Soft Magnetic Materials
(2023-12-06) Yang, Jing; Fu, Zongwen; Wahl, Larissa; Travitzky, Nahum; Körner, Carolin

Laminated, powder filled, and dense bulk soft magnets are currently used for various electrical and electronic applications due to their characteristic magnetic properties. In order to systematically investigate the correlation between the structural features and the resulting magnetic performance of various soft magnetic materials, toroidal Fe93.5Si6.5 (wt.%) specimens with “layer structure”, “powder structure”, and “dense structure” are additively manufactured and characterized by means of electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF‐EB). The specimens with “layer structure” show outstanding magnetic performance in terms of low power losses and good maximum magnetic flux density at frequencies ranging from 50 to 1000 Hz, outperforming even some soft magnetic materials fabricated using conventional methods. Fe93.5Si6.5 (wt.%) specimens with various layered structures are produced using different processing strategies, allowing for sophisticated structural tailoring, and modifying the corresponding magnetic performance. Based on the results derived in this study, an ideal structure that can result in superior soft magnetic properties is proposed.