Eosinophils, but Not Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells, Are the Predominant Source of Interleukin 4 during the Innate Phase of Leishmania major Infection

Language
en
Document Type
Article
Issue Date
2022-08-05
First published
2022-07-25
Issue Year
2022
Authors
Sasse, Carolin
Barinberg, David
Obermeyer, Stephanie
Debus, Andrea
Schleicher, Ulrike
Bogdan, Christian
Editor
Publisher
MDPI
Abstract

Interleukin (IL)-4 plays a central role in the initiation of a type 2 T helper cell (Th2) response, which leads to non-healing and progressive infections with the protozoan parasite Leishmania (L.) major. Here, we tested the hypothesis that type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), which promote the development of Th2 cells, form an important source of IL-4 early after intradermal or subcutaneous L. major infection. Lineage-marker negative CD90.2+CD127+PD1− ILC2 were readily detectable in the ear or foot skin, but hardly in the draining lymph nodes of both naïve and L. major-infected self-healing C57BL/6 and non-healing BALB/c mice and made up approximately 20% to 30% of all CD45+SiglecF− cells. Dermal ILC2 of C57BL/6 mice expressed the inducible T cell-costimulator (ICOS, CD278), whereas BALB/C ILC2 were positive for the stem cell antigen (Sca)-1. Within the first 5 days of infection, the absolute numbers of ILC2 did not significantly change in the dermis, which is in line with the unaltered expression of cytokines activating (IL-18, IL-25, IL-33, TSLP) or inhibiting ILC2 (IL-27, IFN-γ). At day 5 to 6 post infection, we observed an upregulation of IL-4, but not of IL-5, IL-10 or IL-13 mRNA. Using IL-4-reporter (4get) mice, we found that the production of IL-4 by C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice was largely restricted to CD45+SiglecF+ cells of high granularity, i.e., eosinophils. From these data, we conclude that eosinophils, but not ILC2, are a major innate source of IL-4 at the skin site of L. major infection.

Journal Title
Pathogens
Volume
11
Issue
8
Citation

Pathogens 11.8 (2022): 828. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/11/8/828

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