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  • Doctoral thesis
    Open Access
    Deep Learning Studie zur Hämatoxylin-Eosin histomorphologischen Klassifikation von Urothelkarzinomentitäten mittels Whole-Slide Image Managing Pipeline
    (2023-12-19) Geyer, Christoph; Jabari, Samir
    Abstract Background: Processing pathological Whole Slide Images (WSI) to train neural networks currently requires a lot of work and high expertise in the programming of digital systems. The use of predesigned and customizable pipelines minimizes the entry hurdle of programming for medical professionals. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to generate a reliable classification of the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained sections of the various urothelial carcinomas within the Deep Learning Morphology (DLM) pipeline of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg without incurring high costs or increased expenditure of time for the immunohistochemical and molecular pathological processing in the future. Methods: At the beginning, this paper offers an indespensable historical overview, which gives a well-founded scientific classification of artificial intelligence and the deep neural networks of BigData, which has a rapidly growing impact on the medical field in the context of the fourth industrial revolution (cf. Kim 2022: 1; Topol 2020: 22). The paper furthermore presents the urothelial carcinoma with high international and national incidence, which is highly relevant for the deep learning application of image recognition (cf. Grignon et al. 2016: 81; RKI 2021: 24). The pipeline is trained and evaluated for a classification task using artificial intelligence with the following twelve urothelial carcinoma entities: not otherwise specified urothelial carcinoma (NOS), squamous urothelial carcinoma, sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma, micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC), plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC), neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), large nested urothelial carcinoma (LNUC), nested urothelial carcinoma (NUC), glandular urothelial carcinoma, lymphoepithelioma-like urothelial carcinoma, glycogen rich (clear cell) urothelial carcinoma and trophoblastoid urothelial carcinoma. A short section about the hardware and the software provides an overview of the necessary technology for processing and annotating WSI. Fine, manual annotation of the WSI was performed with the QuPath program using the GAOMON S620 pen pad. The chapter on the Whole-Slide Image Managing Pipeline lays out the basic working steps of a customizable digital pathology framework suitable, so that a clinical pathologist with no programming experience can use it to explore digital projects without major obstacles. The DLM pipeline generates four-field tables with true and false-positive rates, as well as Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) and precision-recall curves (PR-Curves) for interpreting the results. Results: A reliable classification cannot be achieved with this dataset. Even with a highly unequal distribution of the quantity of tumor entities - with underrepresented entities of ≤ 5 % and weakly represented entities - the framework still achieved a very high score of almost 100 %, which, however, must be attributed to a high probability of correct guessing by the artificial intelligence. Conclusions and discussion: The results are a definite clue for the necessity of approximately equal distribution of different entities. Furthermore the paper also presents some difficulties and dead ends, which may occur during the process. As an example, a loss of depth of field through data transfer to an external storage medium is corrected by using jpeg-compression of the SlideConverter from 3D-Histech. Also, the distortion of the coordinates, which occurs by implementing the Mirax file formats (.mrxs) into the pipeline, is corrected using the pre-programmed scirpt of the DLM framework by removing the black and white padding around the pathological slides added by OpenSlide. The conclusion offers an outlook into the future development of deep learning applications for medical disciplines involving pattern (cf. Topol 2020: 109-129). Zusammenfassung Hintergrund und Ziele: Die Verarbeitung von pathologischen Whole Slide Images (WSI) für das Training neuronaler Netzwerke setzt aktuell einen hohen Arbeitsaufwand und hervorragende Kenntnisse der Programmierung digitaler Systeme voraus. Die Verwendung von vorgefertigten und anpassbaren pipelines minimiert diese Hürde der Progammierarbeit für Mediziner. Diese Promotionsarbeit verfolgt das Ziel, eine sichere Klassifikation der Hämatoxylin-Eosin (HE) gefärbten Schnitte der verschiedenen Urothelkarzinome innerhalb der Deep Learning Morphology (DLM) pipeline der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg zu generieren, ohne in Zukunft hohe Kosten oder erhöhten Zeitaufwand durch die immunhistochemische und molekularpathologische Aufarbeitung zu erzeugen. Methoden: Zu Beginn befasst sich diese Arbeit mit einem unverzichtbaren historischen Exkurs, der eine fundierte wissenschaftliche Einordnung der künstlichen Intelligenz und der tiefen neuronalen Anwendungen von BigData innerhalb des schnell wachsenden, jungen medizinischen Fachgebietes im Rahmen der vierten industriellen Revolution bietet (vgl. Kim 2022: 1; Topol 2020: 22). Anschließend folgt eine Darstellung des Urothelkarzinoms, dessen hohe internationale und nationale Inzidenz von großer Relevanz für die Deep Learning Anwendung einer Bilderkennung ist (vgl. Grignon et al. 2016: 81; RKI 2021: 24). Insgesamt werden folgende zwölf Urothelkarzinomentitäten für eine Klassifizierungsaufgabe mittels künstlicher Intelligenz in der pipeline trainiert und evaluiert: not otherwise specified urothelial carcinoma (NOS), squamous urothelial carcinoma, sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma, micropapillary urothelial carcinoma (MPUC), plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC), neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), large nested urothelial carcinoma (LNUC), nested urothelial carcinoma (NUC), glandular urothelial carcinoma, lymphoepithelioma-like urothelial carcinoma, glycogen rich (Clear cell) urothelial carcinoma und trophoblastoid urothelial carcinoma. Ein kurzer Abschnitt über die verwendete Hard- und Software schafft einen Überblick über die angewendete Technik zur Prozessierung und manuellen Annotation der WSI. Mit dem Stiftzeichenpad GAOMON S620 erfolgte eine feine manuelle Annotation der WSI mit dem Programm QuPath. Das Kapitel Whole-Slide Image Managing Pipeline legt die grundlegenden Arbeitsschritte eines anpassbaren framework für digitale Pathologie dar, derer sich ein in Programmierung unerfahrener klinischer Pathologe in der Erforschung digitaler Projekte ohne große Hindernisse bedienen kann. Die DLM pipeline erzeugt Vierfeldertafeln mit true and false-positive rates, sowie reciever operating curves (ROC) und precision-recall curves (PR Curves) zur Interpretation der Ergebnisse. Ergebnisse und Beobachtungen: Eine sichere Klassifizierung wird mit diesem Datensatz nicht erreicht. Wegen der überaus ungleichen Mengenverteilung der Tumorentitäten erzielt der framework für die unterrepräsentierten Entitäten mit ≤ 5 % und für die schwach repräsentierten Entitäten sehr hohe Trefferquoten von nahezu 100 %, die jedoch einer hohen richtigen Ratewahrscheinlichkeit der künstlichen Intelligenz zuzuschreiben sind. Schlussfolgerungen und Diskussion: Die gewonnen Resultate liefern allerdings Aufschluss über die Notwendigkeit einer annähernd gleichen Verteilung verschiedener Entitäten. Weiterhin werden die aufgetretenen Probleme und Irrwege dargestellt, die bei der Prozessierung auftreten. Zum einen erfolgt die Korrektur eines Tiefenschärfeverlustes durch Datenübertragung auf externe Speichermedien mittels jpeg-Kompression des SlideConverter von 3D-Histech. Ebenso findet eine Korrektur der Koordinatenverschiebung mittels DLM framework eigenem script statt, da die Verwendung von OpenSlide bei der Implementierung der Mirax-Dateiformate (.mrxs) ein schwarzes und weißes padding um die pathologischen slides erzeugt. Den Abschluss bildet ein Ausblick auf die zukünftige Entwicklung der Deep Learning Anwendungen für die medizinischen Disziplinen mit Mustern (vgl. Topol 2020: 109-129).
  • Doctoral thesis
    Open Access
    Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum konjugierten Wärmeübergang beim Schmelzen von makroverkapselten Phasenwechselmaterialien
    (2023-07-24) Hummel, Daniel; Andreas, Hornung; Stefan, Beer
    Latent heat storage bears the potential of high storage densities and heat supply at nearly constant temperature. Besides economic aspects, their practical application often fails due to low heat transfer rates between the heat transfer fluid and the macroencapsulated phase change material. Improving heat transfer requires a profound understanding of the underlying thermo-fluid dynamic processes and a computational methodology that is capable of capturing them. During the melting of macroencapsulated phase change materials, the capsule inner wall temperature, which is the driving force for the melting process, is formed in a temporally and spatially variable manner by the interaction of the flow and heat transport processes in the heat transfer fluid, capsule wall and phase change material. In the storage material, solid phase motion occurs under real conditions, leading to close-contact melting and a significant influence on the melting process. Existing computational methods, especially methods of numerical thermo-fluid dynamics, do not cover these aspects. In order to solve this problem, a finite volume based model is developed in this work. It allows a coupled computation of the thermo-fluid dynamic processes in the heat transfer fluid, capsule wall and phase change material. The phase change process is described by the enthalpy-porosity method. For the solid motion, a fluid-structure interaction approach is developed. It involves a reconstruction of the solid surface based on the generation of isosurfaces. The solid phase velocity is computed in a strong coupling to the pressure equation. As an alternative to the resolved fluid- structure interaction, a simplified approach for the description of the solid motion is developed. A partitioned sequential solution method is used for the overall model. To validate the model, an experimental setup is developed. It includes a vertical channel for flow around a vertically cylindrical test specimen. A stepwise approach is used to validate the individual components of the model and the overall model. When comparing the simulation to the conducted experiments for melting of n-pentadecane in a vertically cylindrical encapsulation at a Stefan number of 0.2 and Reynolds numbers of 350, 2800 and 10 000, differences of roughly 10 to 15% are obtained. After validation, the overall model is demonstrated by studying the conjugate heat transfer during melting of various phase change materials in horizontally cylindrical capsules in cross flow. The results show that the melting time in the conjugate case depends mainly on the Reynolds number of the heat transfer fluid, its Prandtl number and thermal conductivity, the ratio of the thermal conductivities between the capsule wall and the liquid phase change material, the ratio of the characteristic lengths of the capsule wall and the capsule, and the thickness of the melting gap. The melting time ratio, which relates the melting time in the conjugate case to the melting time of the isothermally heated capsule, is correlated to the Biot number of the conjugate mean melt gap width. With the correlation found, the simulation results can be reproduced within maximal deviations of ±22%.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Gedächtnis : Fünf Vorträge
    Erlanger Universitätstage : 2021, (FAU University Press, 2022-09-21) Freiburg, Rudolf
    This volume presents the printed versions of five lectures focussing on the issue of 'memory'. These lectures were held on the occasion of the Erlanger Universitätstage from 23 February to 23 March 2021 in Amberg and from 21 October to 25 November 2021 in Ansbach. Five Erlangen scholars and scientists, Prof. Dr. Yesim Erim, PD Dr. Sven Grampp, Prof. Dr. Frieder R. Lang, Dr. Michael Schwarz and PD Dr. Gerd Sebald, – representing the disciplines of Psychotherapy, Media Studies, Psychogerontology, Neuropsychology and Sociology – delivered enthralling lectures analysing diverse complex phenomena of 'memory' from their respective specialist perspectives. Despite the high intellectual standards of these papers they remain understandable to a wide audience.
  • Article
    Open Access
    How effective are enforcement measures for compliance with the minimum wage? Evidence from Germany
    (SAGE Publications, 2022-05-13) Bossler, Mario; Jaenichen, Ursula; Schächtele, Simeon
    The extent of non-compliance with minimum wages is heavily debated, but little is known about the effectiveness of enforcement measures. Following the introduction of a national minimum wage in Germany in 2015, employers in a catalogue of industries deemed at high risk of non-compliance were subject to more stringent enforcement requirements, such as an obligation to record hours worked. Using national administrative employment data, in this study the authors exploit the variation in enforcement measures to analyze the effect on non-compliance. As an empirical strategy, they balance jobs from industries with stricter enforcement measures with jobs from other industries and apply difference-in-differences estimations. The evidence points to a small compliance-enhancing effect of the enforcement measures. The gains in compliance are not offset by more pronounced employment losses in those industries subject to stricter enforcement.
  • Article
    Open Access
    Key interactions in the trimolecular complex consisting of the rheumatoid arthritis-associated DRB1*04:01 molecule, the major glycosylated collagen II peptide and the T-cell receptor
    (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and European League Against Rheumatism, 2022-01-18) Ge, Changrong; Weisse, Sylvia; Xu, Bingze; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Viljanen, Johan; Kihlberg, Jan; Do, Nhu-Nguyen; Schneider, Nadine; Lanig, Harald; Holmdahl, Rikard; Burkhardt, Harald
    ObjectivesRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease strongly associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II allele DRB1*04:01, which encodes a protein that binds self-peptides for presentation to T cells. This study characterises the autoantigen-presenting function of DRB1*04:01 (HLA-DRA*01:01/HLA-DRB1*04:01) at a molecular level for prototypic T-cell determinants, focusing on a post-translationally modified collagen type II (Col2)-derived peptide.MethodsThe crystal structures of DRB1*04:01 molecules in complex with the peptides HSP70289-306, citrullinated CILP982-996 and galactosylated Col2259-273 were determined on cocrystallisation. T cells specific for Col2259-273 were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with DRB1*04:01-positive RA by cytofluorometric detection of the activation marker CD154 on peptide stimulation and binding of fluorescent DRB1*0401/Col2259-273 tetramer complexes. The cDNAs encoding the T-cell receptor (TCR) α-chains and β-chains were cloned from single-cell sorted tetramer-positive T cells and transferred via a lentiviral vector into TCR-deficient Jurkat 76 cells.ResultsThe crystal structures identified peptide binding to DRB1*04:01 and potential side chain exposure to T cells. The main TCR recognition sites in Col2259-273 were lysine residues that can be galactosylated. RA T-cell responses to DRB1*04:01-presented Col2259-273 were dependent on peptide galactosylation at lysine 264. Dynamic molecular modelling of a functionally characterised Col2259-273-specific TCR complexed with DRB1*04:01/Col2259-273 provided evidence for differential allosteric T-cell recognition of glycosylated lysine 264.ConclusionsThe MHC-peptide-TCR interactions elucidated in our study provide new molecular insights into recognition of a post-translationally modified RA T-cell determinant with a known dominant role in arthritogenic and tolerogenic responses in murine Col2-induced arthritis.
  • Book part
    Open Access
    Anhang
    (FAU University Press, 2021-10-05) Enzelberger, Sabina; Enzelberger, Manfred; Keilhauer, Annette; Schöck, Thomas A. H.; Wittern-Sterzel, Renate
    Anhang zu 30 Jahre Frauenbeauftragte an der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg.
  • Doctoral thesis
    Open Access
    „Gibt es Veränderungen in der Qualität bzw. Komplikationshäufigkeit in der Knieendoprothetik durch die Etablierung eines Endoprothesenzetrums (EPZ)? “
    (2021-10-04) Düzgünoglu, Muzaffer; Schuh, Alexander
    ABSTRACT Background The aim of the study is to show whether there are any changes in quality or incidence of complications in total knee arthroplasty(TKA) after establishing a centre for endoprothesis (EPZ). Material and Methods We conducted a retrospective study comparing 100TKAs one year before establishing an EPZ (Group I) with 100 TKAs one year after establishing an EPZ (group II). Data were collected by analysing our electronic documentation system, and the report of the rehabilitation hospital. The following parameters were documented which are necessary to establish an EPZ: existence of X-rays before and after operation. Existence of full length weight bearing X-ray before operation or using a navigation device. Existence of preoperative planning, duration of TKA below 100 minutes. The following complications were documented: Peripros- thetic infections, occurrence of periprosthetic fissures/frac- satisfaction rate with the hospital stay and mortality rate. Ad- ditionally femorotibial angle, femoral angle, tibial angle and tibial slope were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 22.0. using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Qui- Square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results There were no statistical differences in local or systemic complications. The mean duration of operation was 82.9 min in group I (min.: 55, max.: 141) und 81.5 min in group II (min.: 57, max.: 129; p > 0.05). In group I, there were 20/100 cases (20 %) with operation time longer than 100 min- utes, in group II 13/100 cases (13 %; p < 0.001). Analysis of anatomical femorotibial angle, femur angle, tibial angle and tibial slope showed no significant differences. The rate of documented survey of patients stasfaction rate improved from 62% in group I to 98 % in group II (p < 0.001). Conclusion By establishing an EPZ, we achieved a significant improvement in the parameters operation time > 100 min- utes and documented survey of patients´ satisfaction rate,but not in complication rate.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Grenzen : Fünf Vorträge
    Erlanger Universitätstage : 2020, (FAU University Press, 2021-08-13) Freiburg, Rudolf
    This volume presents the printed versions of the lectures on the contemporary issue of 'Grenzen' (German for 'borderlines') held on the occasion of the Erlanger Universitätstage from 3 March to 31 March 2020 in Amberg and from 22 October to 26 November 2020 in Ansbach. Five Erlangen scholars and scientists, Prof. Dr. Doris Feldmann, Dr. Johannes Fürst, Prof. Dr. Kristina Giesel, Prof. Dr. Christoph Ostgathe und Prof. Dr. Jörn Wilms, – representing the disciplines of English Cultural Studies, Geoscience, Theoretical Physics, Palliative Medicine and Astronomy – delivered enthralling lectures analysing diverse complex phenomena of borderlines from their respective specialist perspectives. Despite the high intellectual standards of these papers they remain understandable to a wide audience.
  • Article
    Open Access
    Stochastic Dynamic Analysis of Cultural Heritage Towers up to Collapse
    (MDPI, 2021-08-02) Kouris, Emmanouil-Georgios S.; Kouris, Leonidas-Alexandros S.; Konstantinidis, Avraam A.; Kourkoulis, Stavros K.; Karayannis, Chris G.; Aifantis, Elias C.
    This paper deals with the seismic vulnerability of monumental unreinforced masonry (URM) towers, the fragility of which has not yet been sufficiently studied. Thus, the present paper fills this gap by developing models to investigate the seismic response of URM towers up to collapse. On mount Athos, Greece, there exist more than a hundred medieval towers, having served mainly as campaniles or fortifications. Eight representative towers were selected for a thorough investigation to estimate their seismic response characteristics. Their history and architectural features are initially discussed and a two-step analysis follows: (i) limit analysis is performed to estimate the collapse mechanism and the locations of critical cracks, (ii) non-linear explicit dynamic analyses are then carried out, developing finite element (FE) simulations, with cracks modelled as interfacial surfaces to derive the capacity curves. A meaningful definition of the damage states is proposed based on the characteristics of their capacity curves, with the ultimate limit state related to collapse. The onset of slight damage-state is characterised by the formation and development of cracks responsible for the collapse mechanism of the structure. Apart from these two, another two additional limit states are also specified: the moderate damage-state and the extensive one. Fragility and vulnerability curves are finally generated which can help the assessment and preservation of cultural heritage URM towers.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Was ist normal? Atzelsberger Gespräche 2019
    Atzelsberger Gespräche : 2019, (FAU University Press, 2021-05-12) Rohe, Mathias
    „Das ist doch nicht normal“ – eine Redewendung, die auch vor der Seuche schon sprachliches und emotionales Alltagsrepertoire war. Aber was ist schon normal – jenseits dessen, was man selbst dafür hält? Wie einigen wir uns über Normalität, brauchen wir sie überhaupt, und falls ja, weshalb, in welchem Rahmen und in welchen Grenzen? Ist nicht das Unnormale viel spannender als das Normale, und grenzt die Normalitätsdebatte nicht Menschen und Dinge aus, die das nicht verdient haben? Muss es eine einzige Normalität geben, und wer legt sie fest? Eine Annäherung an solche Fragen kann nur im Gespräch zwischen unterschiedlichen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen gelingen; eine jede hat ihre eigenen Blickwinkel, Methoden und Erkenntnisse. Für die Atzelsberger Gespräche konnten herausragende Expertinnen und Experten für Beiträge gewonnen werden, die uns profunde Einblicke in die Fragestellungen von Norm und Normabweichung verschafften, Scheingewissheiten als solche entlarvten und die oft überraschende Dynamik im Verständnis von Normalem und Unnormalem aufzeigten. Aida Bosch erschließt aus soziologischer Sicht Debatten über Gesellschaft im Wertewandel – ein dynamisches Verständnis von Normalität – mit optimistischem Ausblick. Friedrich Lösel erhellt die sozialpsychologischen und kriminologischen Dimensionen des (Un)Normalen. Nadine Metzger verschafft Einblicke in die Diskussionen um die Suche der Medizin im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert nach dem „Normkörper“ – dabei wird die mögliche Kehrseite der Normierung deutlich, nämlich die Ausgrenzung des „Unnormalen“. Hans Dickel zeigt „Anstößiges“ anhand von vier Beispielen in der Kunst – Skandale, die auch den Anstoß zu neuen Normalitäten bilden können.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Flucht und Menschenrechte: Ergebnisse eines Gesellschaftswissenschaftlichen Kollegs der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes
    Erlanger Migrations- und Integrationsstudien : 7, (FAU University Press, 2020-12-10) Bendel, Petra; Krennerich, Michael
    Discussions about the implementation of human rights also for refugees have time and again been at the top of political agendas in the EU and its Member States. But what exactly is required with regard to human rights? Which are the areas in which human rights as laid down in international and EU-law provide orientation– even where law is still open to debate? This volume presents findings of a two-year research college with students organized by the German foundation „Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes“. It combines interdisciplinary approaches on refuge and refugee policies. It deals with utopias of (universal) freedom of movement, the analysis of EU migration management, the role of migrant organizations, the increasing importance of municipalities and, finally, also with good-practice criteria for interpreting confidential doctor-patient chats.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Werte: Fünf Vorträge
    Erlanger Universitätstage : 2019, (FAU University Press, 2020-09-21) Freiburg, Rudolf
    This volume presents the printed versions of the lectures on the subject of 'Werte' (German for 'values') held on the occasion of the Erlanger Universitätstage from 12 March to 9 April 2019 in Amberg and from 24 October to 28 November 2019 in Ansbach. Five Erlangen scholars and scientists, Prof. Dr. Maren Conrad, Dr. Caroline Hack, Dr. Klaus Lösch, Prof. Dr. Roland Sturm und Prof. Dr. Georges Tamer, – representing the disciplines of German/Comparative Studies, Medical Ethics, American Studies, Political Science and Oriental Philology/Islamic Studies – managed to deliver enthralling lectures analysing diverse complex phenomena of values and evaluation from their respective specialist perspectives. Despite the high intellectual standards of these papers they remain understandable to a wide audience.
  • Article
    Open Access
    Invariant Image-Based Currency Denomination Recognition Using Local Entropy and Range Filters
    (MDPI, 2020-01-15) Anwar, Hafeez; Ullah, Farman; Iqbal, Asif; Ul Hasnain, Anees; Ur Rehman, Ata; Bell, Peter; Kwak, Daehan
    We perform image-based denomination recognition of the Pakistani currency notes. There are a total of seven different denominations in the current series of Pakistani notes. Apart from color and texture, these notes differ from one another mainly due to their aspect ratios. Our aim is to exploit this single feature to attain an image-based recognition that is invariant to the most common image variations found in currency notes images. Among others, the most notable image variations are caused by the difference in positions and in-plane orientations of the currency notes in images. While most of the proposed methods for currency denomination recognition only focus on attaining higher recognition rates, our aim is more complex, i.e., attaining a high recognition rate in the presence of image variations. Since, the aspect ratio of a currency note is invariant to such differences, an image-based recognition of currency notes based on aspect ratio is more likely to be translation- and rotation-invariant. Therefore, we adapt a two step procedure that first extracts a currency note from the homogeneous image background via local entropy and range filters. Then, the aspect ratio of the extracted currency note is calculated to determine its denomination. To validate our proposed method, we gathered a new dataset with the largest and most diverse collection of Pakistani currency notes, where each image contains either a single or multiple notes at arbitrary positions and orientations. We attain an overall average recognition rate of 99% which is very encouraging for our method, which relies on a single feature and is suited for real-time applications. Consequently, the method may be extended to other international and historical currencies, which makes it suitable for business and digital humanities applications
  • Book
    Open Access
    Valuing Local Ownership: Refugees and Municipalities as Actors in the Search for Sustainable Solutions to Displacement
    Erlanger Migrations- und Integrationsstudien : 6, (FAU University Press, 2019-10-28) Stürner, Janina; Bendel, Petra
    With the Global Compact on Refugees, the International Community seeks to highlight the importance of multi-stakeholder approaches in the search for sustainable solutions to displacement. However, when it comes to planning and implementing durable solutions, two of the main actors are often absent or even excluded from decision-making – these are refugees and hosting municipalities. The two papers in this publication highlight central bottlenecks for participatory approaches in both resettlement schemes as well as camp accommodation. Based on an analysis of existing good practice and new policy approaches, the first paper develops an innovative proposal for a Municipal Resettlement Programme while the second paper critically discusses potentials and risks of adapting special zones concepts to displacement contexts. Together, both papers are a call for action to actively engage refugees and communities so as to find answers to the question of “who could thrive where?”
  • Book
    Open Access
    30 Jahre Frauenbeauftragte an der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
    (FAU University Press, 2019-10-28) Enzelberger, Sabina; Keilhauer, Annette; Enzelberger, Manfred; Schöck, Thomas A. H.; Wittern-Sterzel, Renate
    This chronicle documents the multifaceted developments of 30 years of equal opportunity management at the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. Starting point is an introduction to the history of female scholars at German universities and at the Friedrich-Alexander Universität up until the start of official women’s advancement in 1989. Thereafter, the most important measures and initiatives set in motion in the following three decades by the University women’s representatives are described and presented in a detailed and richly illustrated chronological synopsis. The chronicle subsequently focusses on the most important areas of gender equality management, lists award-winning projects, and gives a brief overview of gender studies in Germany and at the Friedrich-Alexander University. It ends with an appraisal of the present situation and an outlook into the future tasks and desiderata of the office of the University women’s representatives. The chronicle is based on an extensive study of the literature and on numerous archive documents, of which some are made available in a digital appendix. For the first time, the engagement of many protagonists at the Friedrich-Alexander University over the course of more than 30 years is, thus, elaborated and acknowledged accordingly. The chronicle also casts a spotlight on the socio-political context in which this engagement developed, its achievement and the deficits still to be deplored.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Täuschungen: Fünf Vorträge
    Erlanger Universitätstage : 2018, (FAU University Press, 2019-08-20) Freiburg, Rudolf
    This volume presents the printed versions of the lectures on the subject of 'Täuschungen' (German for 'deceptions') held on the occasion of the Erlanger Universitätstage from 20 February to 20 March 2018 in Amberg and from 25 October to 29 November 2018 in Ansbach. Five Erlangen scholars and scientists, PD Dr. Doris Gerstl, Prof. Johanna Haberer, Prof. Dr. Gerhard Ernst, Dr. Christian Riess and Prof. Dr. Holger Schulze, – representing the disciplines of art history, Christian journalism, philosophy, image forensics and neurobiology – managed to deliver enthralling lectures analysing the issue of deceptions from their respective specialist perspectives. Despite the high intellectual standards of these papers they are understandable to a wide audience.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Die 68er plus 50 Jahre : Atzelsberger Gespräche 2018
    Atzelsberger Gespräche : 2018, (FAU University Press, 2019-07-02) Neuhaus, Helmut
    Für eine mit einer Universität verbundene Institution wie der Dr. Alfred-Vinzl-Stiftung an der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg lag es nahe, ihre 37. „Atzelsberger Gespräche“ im Jahr 2018 der ein halbes Jahrhundert zurückliegenden 68er Bewegung zu widmen. Sie war von Universitäten ausgegangen, und in ihrem Zentrum standen weltweit immer wieder solche Hochschulen. Allerdings sollte gar nicht erst der Versuch unternommen werden, das gesamte weltgeschichtliche Ereignis der 1960er Jahre unter diesem Gesichtspunkt zu betrachten, aber es war dem Veranstalter wichtig, nach den historischen Kontexten von „1968“ und nach den Auswirkungen der nach diesem Jahr benannten Bewegung im folgenden halben Jahrhundert in bestimmten Bereichen zu fragen. Daher enthält der vorliegende 32. Band der „Atzelsberger Gespräche“ im Anschluß an einen Blick des Universitätsarchivars Dr. Clemens Wachter auf die Ereignisse an der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg vor 50 Jahren die Vorträge des Erlanger Literaturwissenschaftlers Professor Dr. Dirk Niefanger über die Entwicklung der deutschen Literatur nach 1968 sowie des ebenfalls an der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität lehrenden Strafrechtlers Professor Dr. Christoph Safferling über die Folgen von „68“ für das Strafrecht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Die Schweizer Zeithistorikerin Professor Dr. Christina Späti von der Universität Freiburg im Üechtland behandelt die – oft übersehenen – 1968er Ereignisse in der Schweiz und ihre Auswirkungen in dem halben Jahrhundert darnach, bevor der Münchener Historiker und ehemalige Direktor des Instituts für Zeitgeschichte München–Berlin Professor Dr. Horst Möller das Jahr 1968 in einer weltweit vergleichenden Perspektive in den Blick nimmt.
  • Doctoral thesis
    Open Access
    Der Einfluss des zerebralen Selenspiegels auf die Progression maligner Hirntumoren
    (2019-02-25) Yakubov, Eduard; Blümcke, Ingmar
    Malignant primary brain tumors belong to the most lethal human neoplasias. Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Even with aggressive multimodality treatments, the outcome of patients with GBM still remains fatal. Therefore, we have investigated agents that may be relevant for therapy. The agent selenium is an essential micronutrient with toxic properties. Several randomized clinical trials have been conducted to test the hypothesis that supplemental selenium can reduce cancer risk. First indications that selenium might protect against glioblastoma were suggested in the late 1980s based on observations of reduced serum concentrations of selenium in patients suffering from brain malignancies. However, there is a need to clarify whether selenium can inhibit gliomagenesis and glioma-induced angiogenesis directly. In this study, we show for the first time in vivo the impact of the micronutrient selenium in reducing glioma tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, glioma xenograft models revealed that selenium deficiency is also associated with acceleration of glioma progression. In vitro, we show that the treatment with selenite resulted in a massive glioma cell reduction, while primary neuronal cells remained viable indicating that selenium toxicity is selective for glioma cells. Further molecular analysis showed that selenium-induced cell death is PIP2 dependent and interferes with the cell cycle regulator Cdk4. Our study demonstrates that selenium induces caspase-independent apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, we found in ex vivo brain slices that selenium inhibits glioma cell invasion and prevents peritumoral cell death significantly. Selenium also decreased the spreading of tumor cells and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The findings in this study provide us with an insight into the importance of selenium as a therapeutic option for glioblastoma therapy, and helps us to understand this trace element with neuroprotective, antiangiogenic and chemotherapeutic properties that can be considered as a promising agent in neuro-oncology.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Akzeptiere : Das Buch und seine Geschichte. Deutsche Übersetzung mit Einleitung und Kommentar von Atli Magnus Seelow
    (FAU University Press, 2019-02-05) Seelow, Atli Magnus
    The »Stockholm Exhibition 1930 of Arts and Crafts and Home Industries« (›Stockholmsutställningen 1930 av konstindustri, konsthantverk och hemslöjd‹) and the Acceptera-manifesto, published the following year by the exhibition organizers – Gunnar Asplund, Wolter Gahn, Sven Markelius, Gregor Paulsson, Eskil Sundahl und Uno Åhrén – mark the breakthrough of Modern Architecture in Sweden as well as in the other Nordic countries. In Acceptera (›Accept‹) the authors promote, under the term »Functionalism«, or »Funkis«, a modernisation of architecture, urban planning and the arts and crafts, which is the product of inevitable progress and which has to be »accepted« — thus the title of the book. In subsequent years this functionalism develops into an equally aesthetic and political programme for the restructuring of Sweden to a »folkhem« (literally ›a people’s home‹), the term symbolising Sweden’s welfare state. This book makes the text of the Acceptera-Manifesto accessible to the interested reader in German for the first time. In addition, the history of the book is investigated: the various movements and developments that contribute to the Stockholm exhibition and the publication of Acceptera are examined; the reception and impact of the book are also taken into account. Finally, this edition is extensively annotated and its design follows the Swedish original from 1931 as it constitutes an integral part of the book.
  • Book
    Open Access
    Sprachwelten: Vier Vorträge
    Erlanger Universitätstage : 2017, (FAU University Press, 2018-10-18) Büttner, Andrea; Freiherr, Jessica; Grüner, Andreas; Herbst, Thomas; Oettinger, Norbert; Freiburg, Rudolf
    Der vorliegende Band präsentiert die Druckfassungen der Vorträge zum Thema ‚Sprachwelten‘, die anlässlich der Erlanger Universitätstage vom 07. März bis zum 04. April 2017 in Amberg und vom 26. Oktober bis zum 30. November 2017 in Ansbach gehalten wurden. Die sechs Erlanger Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler, Professor Dr. Andrea Büttner, Prof. Dr. Jessica Freiherr, Professor Dr. Andreas Grüner, Prof. Dr. Thomas Herbst, Prof. Dr. Norbert Oettinger und Prof. Dr. André Reis – aus den fünf Disziplinen Lebensmittelchemie, Archäologie, Englische Sprachwissenschaft, Indogermanistik und Humangenetik – verstanden es auf ebenso anregende wie informative Weise, das Thema ‚Sprachwelten‘ aus ihrer jeweiligen Fachperspektive heraus zu interpretieren.